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1917. "Manual training class at the Franklin summer open-air school in Chicago." The open-air movement, which started in 1908 and ran through the 1930s, provided for the education of children with tuberculosis while at the same time crusading against "ventilating systems which do not ventilate." The movement (one subcategory of which was the "open window school") reflected a prevailing belief in the therapeutic powers of fresh air. View full size. Photograph by Burke & Atwell, Chicago. Elizabeth McCormick Memorial Fund.