October 30, 1939. "German-American Bund parade on East 86th Street." New York World-Telegram photo (Library of Congress).
        Gerhard Kunze, leader of the German-American Bund, fled to Mexico in November 1941, with plans to evacuate to Germany by submarine. Instead he was captured by federal agents and sentenced to 15 years in prison for espionage; his predecessor, the Munich-born Fritz Kuhn, was arrested, stripped of his citizenship, imprisoned and, after the war was over, deported to Germany, where he died in 1951.
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